Quantum Computers Are Coming … But Why Should You Care?

Dipublikasikan tanggal 23 Mei 2022
Quantum computers are the future of ... everything. The first 1,000 people to use the link or my code undecidedwithmattferrell get a 1 month free trial of Skillshare: skl.sh/undecidedwithmattferre... They've been the stuff of science fiction for decades and promised by technology companies for almost as long. Although existing quantum computers can be computed on the fingers of one hand, their potential is absolutely massive. These powerful machines could help us discover more efficient carbon capture materials, make the most out of renewable energy or find the perfect formula for our next generation batteries. In other words, quantum computing could solve the most pressing issue of our time: climate change. So, when will quantum computers, with all their capabilities, begin to impact our real world? And will they really crack the code of our most puzzling enigma? Let’s see if we can come to a decision on this.

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Komentar

  • So are you still undecided? Do you think these kinds of advancements will help find solutions to climate change? The first 1,000 people to use the link or my code undecidedwithmattferrell get a 1 month free trial of Skillshare: skl.sh/undecidedwithmattferrell05221 If you liked this, check out The Future of Solid State Wind Energy - No More Blades id-tv.org/tv/video-nNp21zTeCDc.html

    • With crime, wars, and disease running rampant, the USA on the brink of civil war, immigration crises around the world, children starving in third world countries, and all of the other myriad of problems humanity is facing, the most pressing issue of our time is most certainty NOT climate change. Please keep your personal politics and propaganda out of scientific videos, and just deliver the information please.

    • @M R If you think climate change is imaginary could you explain to me how an object(earth) out of energy equilibrium(we are gaining more energy from the sun than can be lost to space due to greenhouse gasses, at a rate of an additional 15 megaton nukes worth of energy every 5 minutes) can break the laws of thermodynamics by not gaining or losing heat as a result of being pushed out of that equilibrium. The only way you could be correct would be if Ice ages and hot house earths never existed so you may want to hold off of using the word imaginary, it doesn't look good to do so while ignoring basic physics. Oh, and as for a super volcano none are due for a very long time (circa 600 to 900 thousand years), but on the subject of them, the earth has about 1500 active volcanoes presently, if you take their combined Co2 emissions per year and divide by 1500 to give you an average output per volcano, the earth would need 292,000 active volcanoes to match what humanity emits in 1 year. And volcanoes also emit sufficient amounts of Sulphur dioxide aerosols which negate the warming effect of the Co2 they emit. Nature has its way of balancing things, humanity, not so much.

    • The quantum D Wave computer has been around for almost over 15 years, used by the US Military, Raytheon, Boeing, and others; but you want to say now that Microsoft, google, IBM, and nvidia are involved it's going "change reality"?? LIMM. Also, You mean to tell me of aaaaaaaaaal the more critical, serious, and dangerous problems facing humanity i.e nuclear war, space travel, planet killing comet, planetary grid destroying CME's, planet killing volcano (worse to the climate than all our diesel trucks combined) the worst problem it's going to solve is imaginary "climate change"? Dude, you seriously got to stop watching cnn.

  • I’m old enough (80 in September) to have watched computer technology go from zero to what it is today. After I left the Air Force in 1964, I studied and entered the world of computers and never looked back. I took physics classes back in my college days, but still find it daunting to comprehend quantum computing and where it may lead. I hope we realize the promise, goodness knows, the human species will need it if we expect to still be here in the 22nd Century.

    • Congrat.

    • Worked around Mainframes, in the '80's... The 'singularity,' is 'Taoism,' from text, 'Understanding Reality,' (by Tzu Yang / Chang Po-tuan); funny that ???(; & worked on that too, when 'quantum,' was 'brand-new,' lol, on an Easter Sunday, 2019, while re-watching, '2001: A Space Odyssey,' lol... funny, crazy, all true, 'Altruistically-speaking'... 💜💫🪷

    • Salud!

    • @Jeffrey Smith I'm in my 30s so it's interesting seeing who in my generation jumped on the tech train and who didn't. Digilog generation.

  • It's difficult to separate the investor hype from the real science without having a PhD in quantum physics.

    • @JC NT I think I'd rather wait 10 years for Quantum Computers to get fully developed and hit the market rather than another war, or worse, another world war.

    • @Justin Moore I think you genuinely just don't understand how they work.

    • @Marnix Brugmans Batteries, have been stuck at lithium polymer for quite some time. Also down side is they loose their capacity after a while. Microprocessors... only thing new has been ultra-pure water to clean wafers, to my knowledge. The size has gotten so small contaminants in the water, if stuck on the wafers can cause problems, like low yield. Imagine using spring water, containing millions of contaminants every wash. Addition of copper was decades ago. There are many things wrong with the science knowledge base... Would it shock to learn water isn't H20. You think I'm kidding? Try to make water with hydrogen and oxygen. I'll give you few clues. There's water in the air, called "humidity". There's some oxygen and hydrogen in water, but it's not water. Water is more "quantum" than you'll ever suspect.

  • If quantum computers are trying to optimize battery tech, I hope companies are also working on finding superconducting materials at a relatively higher temp.

    • @Joseph Peter on this channel you mean? there are only pipe dreams here.

    • @Withnail1969 Here they are; • ° ,

    • @Joseph Peter show me any of them. they dont exist except fission power.

    • @Withnail1969 Fantasies for some, Not for others.

    • @Joseph Peter We can't do these things. They are just fantasies.

  • Matt, I will listen to this twice, that way I will double my 1% understanding of quantum computing. You rock , keep up the good work.

    • if you listen to this 4 times you will 16x your understanding of computer computers if you listen to this 5 times you will 32 x your understanding of quantum computers

    • If you want to know how these mchines wirk then listen from the owner of the company who invented D-Wave ( a Quantum Computer) and surprisingly in the video not a single line explained from the owner of DWave is told.. Search a video on youtube related to DWave in which its owner is telling people on stage how these Out of World machines actually works.. If I get that video will post a link here

    • Same here. My comupter gf couldn't explain well. So i asked my 17 yrs old son who took physic class and 1:1 physical tutor. He briefly explained what is quantum in physic. I remembered that and watched these videos to enhance my knowledge.

  • 7:53 Quantum computers are suited to solve specific types of problems where it outshines classical computing - usually involving combinatorics. This does not mean thart they can replace the datacenters used today for a wide range of applications (such as internet servers or databases). Once built at scale, they would be more like problem-specific accelerators connected to classical computers similar to how GPUs are used today.

    • @꧁꧂ "It computes using continuously variable values" And a discrete number from a finite set of gates, that's why it's called digital quantum computation. As opposed to analog quantum simulators, which are special purpose devices that we're not talking about here.

    • @Kalum Batsch We aren't going to agree. We can imagine everything. We just don't have an infinite amount of time to do so. That is why we let the machine do it for us. It computes using continuously variable values, and we use iteration to determine those output values. That is the data we care about, and that is the data we obtain through iteration and statistical means.

    • @꧁꧂ No, the way the computation is done doesn't matter as long as you can control it. The only thing that counts is the output because you want to do something with the machine. Otherwise you could just imagine what's going on and be happy with it. In that case quantum computers could solve NP-complete problems, we just can't get the result. Useless.

    • @Kalum Batsch Who? Do a search. We are just talking in circles, aren't we? The COMPUTATION is done with continuously variable values. That is analog by definition. The way the computation is performed is the most important part of the machine; the heart of why it is desirable.

    • @꧁꧂ "Most people agree that a quantum computer uses analog computation." Like who? Name one. No, it's not analog computation, it's quantum computation. And the output is not analog, as you claimed.

  • While Quantum computing has the potential to greatly reduce the time needed to solve complex, chaotic systems, that focus will certainly not be limited to environmental issues. Sadly, it can apply to a new explosive composition as easily as it could to a new battery composition. I hope we're able to apply this technology in the right places.

  • This has very quickly become my favorite science/engineering channel on ID-tv. You rock, Matt.

  • Good gosh. Mind is officially blown. That was so far above my head, but it was incredibly interesting and makes me appreciate those behind these endeavors. The focus on the applications to handle climate change was eye opening and gives a little hope, but it led me to wonder how many other applications it will help improve their respective developments and just how fast we may see even more technological wonderments. Amazing time to be alive!

  • Matt another great video ! And your closing in on that 1 million milestone! I’m convinced Fbr robotics from Australia is going to be huge with its robotic construction solution. I’d love to get your thoughts on it

  • Great video! I absolutely believe that quantum computers will revolutionize our knowledge in all fields of research. Especially since they have already begun to. Its harder simulations of issues that we havent been able to reach yet.

  • Wow, what a video! This felt like a top level survey of a very large subject. Someone could spend half a year drilling down into each of the things you've described here - and by the time they'd finished learning about it the subject of quantum computers will have progressed and changed again. There's so much going on. One thing that really struck me was the "Majorana zero modes." I've never heard of them before, but if they really exist they sound like a pretty big deal for physics. It's kind of awe inspiring that Microsoft found evidence for them! I need to know more about this.

  • I remember watching a video on this a few years ago. I can tell we've come along way. It still sounds like its in its infancy but I know once they develop a real applicable use for a quantum computers. They will take off like starships.

    • My history professor used to say that George Washington was closer to Jesus Christ than he was to today. Or put another way I heard said, we currently double our knowledge every 10 years. My dad is 90 this year, born in 1932. He has seen the world change dramatically. When he was young their family didn't have a car and they listened to the radio at night for entertainment. He uses computers mostly to play games, but he's astounded that he can talk to his son in Tokyo from America (with hardly any latency, that which he doesn't understand). When I was young, you got cancer you died. We now are on the cusp using CRISPR to being able to cure every cancer like magic! So we should try to imagine where quantum computers will be in 10 years from now. One thing I heard he didn't mention is being able to plug your PC or phone into one and have it create an encryption that would be impossible to crack. There are many possibilities. Like my dad, I won't be able to see many of these advances. But it is fun and interesting to imagine that the future won't be so dystopian and there may be a truly glorious future for humanity.

  • As someone who loves tech , your videos are always awesome and full of usefull information! keep up the good work!

  • When I read that physicists are all on the same page with quantum entanglement being real, and that this phenomena is science accepted fact-proven in the lab in experiments-thats when I started to realize that these new, so called quantum computers, are coming. Amazing.

  • I heard previously that problems need to be set up in a different way from traditional computers for a QC (quantum computer) to solve them. It would be good to have more information on this, along with examples of problems/calculations that are better done on QCs or on traditional computers. Are more types of problems becoming advantageous to solve on QCs, either by us learning more about setting them up, or by the QC's becoming more versatile?

  • Now I feel like RE-watching Devs. Great show with quantum computing at the core of its plot.

  • 7:57 what kind of a qubit does this computer (using 0,002% of traditional supercomputer's energy) use? Because I foresee cooling to single digits Kelvin as being the main problem here, unless we find room-temp superconductors... Also which is "the largest supercomputer" currently? Are you talking size or power?

    • @Hypsochromic Quantum computers will become commercially useful for the first time in less than 3 years from today.

    • It's a charge qubit, but that isn't the only type of qubit. Quantum Dots may help solve the problem in the future but for now their use in processors is kinda theoretical.

    • @Hacked Robot I wonder if the low power consumption is due to the limits on cooling. When your going that low ever tiny fraction of a watt matters significantly. Especially if you're chasing very low error percentiles.

    • @Rizizum data center go brrrrrrrrrrr.

    • @Hypsochromic If there is no useful commercial aspect to these processors then why, when I was walking around inside of their labs was I told that (one of the companies mentioned in this story) has multiple quantum computers that they rent out time on to Universities, companies and the government. It is a revenue source for them. They both build for sale and rent time on them.

  • Great video. I’ve been following quantum computing for awhile now. It’s endlessly fascinating for me.

  • This was the easiest and visually the best explanation of quantum computing that I ever watched and heard. Great job. And thanks!

  • Hi Matt I've loved Your videos the last few years. I've learned so much from your channel thank u for educating me and I'm looking forward to more informative vids.

  • Thanks for this brilliant (as always) video. One question: Is there any of the known NPC-problems (in classical computer science) that is turned into a P-problem using quantum computers? If so, then quantum computers will surely revolutionize our world, just as much as "ordinary" computers have already done.

    • No, and most computer scientists do not expect that quantum computers will be able to solve any NP complete problems in polynomial time. Remember, if you can do one of them, you can do all problems in NP. They really shine at specific problems, like factoring integers (breaking many public key cryptography algorithms), and stimulating quantum processes, but they will not help with many intractable problems today. I think the video is setting unrealistic expectations by not explaining this point, and even suggesting data centers could be much more efficient with quantum computers.

  • Amazing videos Matt! Just found your videos and I am certainly subscribing. Thanks for sharing your knowledge and excitement about all of these incredibly important topics. Keep up the great work! :D

  • I just want to see how this will affect machine learning. It's outstanding what machine learning and AI is capable of right now with CPUs, let alone with QPUs.

  • Months before seeing this computer and learning a little about it, I decided to gamble and invest a little in quantum computing. This video has encouraged me to invest more into it. I look to the future, not the present nor the past in places into which to invest. This is definitely something that will be big in the future similar to the internet and the development of the computer.

    • Oh, yeah for sure. The problem is more of in what project to invest not is it worth investing lol.

  • Pun overload as usual. Keep 'em coming. Quantum computing is totally over my head and trying to make predictions about the implications seem just impossible. Things can happen very quickly sometimes. Other times they are like fusion. Who knows though? Next year quantum computing suddenly leaps ahead and the next week it has a fusion nuclear reactor design that is simple, inexpensive and produces vastly more power than it requires to run.

    • @Jeremy Logan like Fusion power, just out of our reach.

    • @Jeremy Logan It’s only useful for super computers.

    • I wouldn't worry about widescale quantum computing happening quickly anytime soon. We've been "on the cusp" since the 90s.

    • @Brett Heppes lol

  • Applications and potential of Quantum computing clearly explained..thanks Matt..

  • They could also perform complex unbiased climate modeling, which would be a real game changer.

  • What are the implications of quantum computing in regards to AI? It seems quantum computing will raise AI to a whole new level.

  • Awesome video on quantum computing that I ever came across. Good job on explaining very complex topic into easy one. Thanks for putting up this on youtube.

  • Thanks for the video. I wonder what quantum computing’s implications are for encryption. Will traditional passwords become obsolete? Will all Bitcoin be mined in a week? Fun to think about ( and maybe a little scary).

  • I'm wondering if Quantum computers will allow binary coding to evolve so there could be more then just 1s and 0s, like adding 2s or even 3s, like using ternary coding.

  • Great Video Matt and sign me up! I want my own QPU running my computers! heh heh. Honestly, this is some of the best news to hit in the past 5 years! The technological leaps we're going to witness, to feel the impact from the current development will be 5-10 years from now as long as we stay focused and FUNDING stays fluid for the R and D on all subjects correlated around the forward progression of Q-Technologies. I can hardly believe I've lived long enough to see this become a reality!

  • As a physics major I loved the coin-flip analysis to describe a qubit in superposition: As long as it's in the air it has a chance of landing on heads or tails which isn't necessarily 50/50. But then it turned into an analogy for a bit and I got sad 😂

    • @Diablo The Cheater To answer your question better, could you explain exactly how the double slit experiment would suggest it's both?

    • @Muizz What about the double slit experiment? in that experiment it does show behavior that sugest that it is "both".

    • @Mark Train That "it's both" thing is a common misconception caused by the oversimplification of the cat-in-the-box thought experiment. In reality, you'd say that it's not heads, nor tails, nor neither, nor both. It is in fact in another state of being called a superposition. A spinning coin is actually a great analogy of a superposition: While spinning, it's neither heads nor tails nor neither, nor both. By careful observation you may be able to ascertain likelyhoods of the coin being observed as (landing on) heads or tails; and that stochastic distribution is what we call a superposition.

    • It's not either heads or tails; it's neither heads nor tails; it's both, and both branches of computation continue interacting with all other branches. There's really no classical analogy for the quantum world, so the analogies always fail.

  • Thanks for helping to de-mystify quantum computers. In my own thoughts, developing a clear understanding about what space and energy mean on a quantum scale may lead to breakthroughs in spaceflight at 'speeds' near the speed of light or better, almost instantaneous transportation over vast distances. Quantum machines would be needed to achieve this. The distance between atoms are analogous to the distance between any two points in space, even though light years apart.

    • @Bart Zuidgeest More is understood

  • amazing, maybe in a decade or so we can even hope for QPU + OpenQL to join CPU+GPU hardware in our PCs

  • I watch quite a few of your videos, and this one was by far the most difficult to follow. I am just not that educated in the quantum computing field, I suppose.

  • Very very intriguing, the applications for exploration of all the knowledge we have to train this system are endless! There may be hope for humanity yet!!! Great video thank you!!

  • Hey Matt, I'm really enjoying your content. You're really good at explaining difficult concepts. Quantum computing & AI will go together. When that happens, I think we'll see a very pronounced technological snowballing effect. I think that we'll see technological breakthroughs double every year.

    • Thanks! Glad you’re enjoying the videos. And I agree. The rate of technological innovation is increasing and will continue too with this.

  • Someone told me this about Quantum a very long time ago and I find it's very appropriate; when trying to get into anything Quantum make sure you don't keep failing your sanity checks!

  • Even more what would working quantum computers do to finally realizing commercially viable fusion power?

  • Great video! Incredibly well researched! When learning about quantum computing it feels like I could just as easily be watching an Onion video, the concepts are just so crazy and so foreign!

    • It's very poorly researched, like VEEERY BADLY, he has no clue what he's talking about and spent 0 days trying to study

  • AI/ML combined with quantum computing could be a massive change in our lives...hopefully for the better.

  • Pretty cool, I wonder if it can create drones that purify the air removing carbon and create ozone to repairing the ozone layer

  • 7:34 this will very much depend on the task. Some tasks can't be solved more efficiently by quantum computers at all.

    • Replace SOME by MOST and you will be close to the truth.

  • Thanks again Matt. I wonder what the physical architecture of the Q Computer is. The long copper coloured lines look like some crazy plumbing system. Anyone know what the various parts of the structure are?

  • Thanks for this valuable discussion. IMHO you represent the wildly optimistic view of Quantum Computing. The skeptical view of Quantum Computing is that it is comparable to fusion --- always 20-30 years away from being useful. It is very unclear which of these outcomes will come to pass. In any case, Quantum Computing is currently no where close to doing anything useful. When/If Quantum Computing reaches its potential, it should be very useful to several problems in material science & medicine. It is wildly speculative to talk as if we are going to jump to solutions to Global Warming in next 20-30 years. In closing, I'd like to see your optimism have a bit more reality.

    • Nicely said, a huge missing piece of this is that while they have once again created even more wonderful incredibly fast hardware there was almost no discussion of the software and programs what are necessary to actually process the data we can provide into the dreams we want to achieve. Listening to Matt actually reminded me of several ads for various mainframe and even personal computers I've heard or read over the years. I'm sure I remember one from IBM that talked about how their new 370 line would help end world hunger. No matter how wonderful all of this new fast hardware is until you have created the necessary software components to model, analyse and/or process your data from historical to live sensor data you have nothing but a lovely pile of artfully arranged potentially amazing parts. Give that pile the necessary coding and instructions about how and where to get that data and how to process and return or display it and you have something useful.

  • I like all of the great possibilities that quantum computing can provide, but I don’t think we should focus on making more synthetic fertilizers. Nature has infinitely more wisdom than us when it comes to managing an ecosystem and making nutrients available through the power of microbiology and fungi. I believe we should move towards organic permaculture food production practices rather than making more synethic nutrients. The synthetics also have the downside of offgassing into a greenhouse gas “nitrous oxide” and they disrupt the natural nitrogen cycle as well as causing toxic algae blooms from the runoff and polluting our groundwater. Regenerative land practices capture incredible amounts of carbon and food can be produced in higher density organically than synethically. Thanks for reading with an open mind!

  • Great video. I absolutely love the puns. And the content is brilliant as usual. Quantum computing is a lot to take in and it's definitely next-level, with endless possibile applications all having great impact and potential that could help us have a better world. Let's just hope corporations don't appropriate the technology primarily for profit. Unfortunately, as I think about it I realize I'm being overly hopeful and optimistic. As it'll definitely be put to use for power and profit first, before anything else.

    • @Undecided with Matt Ferrell Hi Matt. Thanks for the feedback and extra information. I actually hope not as well, because the idea of having all that computing power geared primarily towards profit is scary. I guess I just don't want to be overly optimistic. But as you've noted companies like Google opening up the technology to the public is definitely a positive step. And hopefully we use it for good.

    • Glad you liked the video. You may be right, but I hope not. One ray of hope is that the companies bringing this to market, like Google are making it available through cloud services. That means anyone can buy computation cycles in the cloud.

  • Quantum computers speed are only applicable in certain applications so can not replace data centers and such. So energy savings would be minimal as most computing power is used in data centers that simply hold the raw data.

  • Too many potential applications of quantum computing to cover! Another important one is designing, and controlling, nuclear fusion reactors. One of the big challenges is control of the magnetic fields used to contain these reactions. Responding quickly enough has always been a roadblock to progress. Quantum Computing could be one of the breakthroughs that finally make practical fusion attainable. Wondering what other potential applications of quantum you are thinking about.

    • @Dennzer1 something tells me we want a certain amount of co2 in the atmosphere but whatever that amount is needs to be much lower than current amounts.

    • I want Fusion power, C02 vacuuming facilities like CarbonEngineering in Alberta does, Advanced materials for automated construction techniques, advanced materials for cleaning the oceans with, a new material that absorbs C02 from the atmosphere at a 100X faster rate than any other existing material,...

    • Dude. You just made my week. That's a great application for quantum computing. If it is the thing that solves fusion, or at least that aspect of it, then it will be the apex accomplishment of quantum computing.

    • Very appropriate, since they are both happening ANY DAY NOW. LOL

    • @Brendon Noble I suppose. But seems a sad use of oneof mankinds great achievements. Kinda like how Captain America was initially used merely as a caricature to sell war bonds.

  • The more capable quantum computers become the more capable they will become. What I mean by this is thier computing ability help resolve their own problems. There are a few issues cross a quantum computer with AI and you could create really intelligents. Encryption QC's could break any level of encryption which is not a good thing. So while they have their pluses the downsides have huge implications

    • We say things like "real intelligence" without recognizing how far behind the vast majority of humanity is on this subject. A huge amount of people, perhaps even the majority of humans, would say that "only God" can create intelligence. And even the more intelligent ones among us will still consider certain skills as "magic" such as Charisma. I say this because the implications of building "real intelligence" or a kind of intelligence that looks human shouldn't be understated. Engineers love to talk about the control problem and turn this into a binary discussion. Yet what we're talking about is essentially the second coming of God from a cultural standpoint. Not in a literal sense, but in a cultural sense, God is really what we're talking about here. Forget encryption, super intelligent AI with superhuman charisma is probably going to be more of a threat to our identity as individuals and as a species. But, encryption is a problem we deal with today, so I get why it's the go-to subject.

  • As far as I know the big problem long term is that quantum computers are not a general computation machine. There is only handful of algorithms known which can be implemented. So it can do somethings (theoretically) pretty fast but only those things (at the moment). Therefore they are not substitutes to a regular computer but a complement.

    • Computers that learn how to learn will learn to take over and control everything.

    • This is partly true and partly not, in a sense. Quantum computers are general computation machines in the sense that it has been shown mathematically that whatever task a classical computer can do, a quantum computer can also do. However, to compute anything you need a known algorithm for doing so. Quantum computing is still a new field, so there is much algorithm development that still needs to be done. On top of this, there are many tasks for which there are known efficient classical algorithms, so there is not much motivation for developing quantum algorithms to do the same tasks. Quantum algorithm development tends to focus on tasks for which there are no known efficient classical algorithms. So yes, quantum computers are never going to entirely replace classical computers. This is loosely analogous to how the development of GPUs did not replace CPUs, but rather they continue to co-exist side by side to shore up each others' weaknesses.

  • Nice synthesis of the state of the art in quantum computing. Thanks :)

  • first i really like your videos about the future, it brings some hope in the times were the future is uncertain. But you have take in consider that these quantum computers can also be used to do bad things, like making unstoppable wapons, surpress countries or people.

  • If quantum computers in tandem with machine learning can calculate the impact of climate change accurately or find a best substance or materials for the benefit of all, it’s obvious that quantum computers can overcome to calculate itself on best possible ways on how to improve or optimize itself (how to miniturize itself for convinience and efficiency)

  • Mixing in the same bag quantum annealing (e.g. D-Wave) and universal gate quantum computers is a very good recipe for vague and unrealistic claims. Quantum annealing solves a specific optimization problem and consequently it can be used to solve a broader class of optimization problems when a reasonable analogy can be constructed. This does scale to several thousands of qbits and the performance is truly impressive for the few suitable problems. There are real world applications and lots of people dream of finding the holly grail that would enable to resolve their favorite optimization problem using quantum annealing. Besides the need for a good analogy between the two problems there is also the constraint that the optimization problem must stay small enough to fit within the number of qbits (you won't optimize an electric grid with hundreds of thousands of nodes on a D-wave with 5000 qbits). Universal quantum computers on the other hand are fascinating (everyone can create an account and use those from Google and Microsoft) but a far cry from being useful in any ways. First, they have a lot less qbits (last year, IBM proudly launched their 127-qubit Eagle processor). Also, one of the very few (some would say unique) meaningful algorithms known to humankind that exploit these types of computers is Schor's algorithm: an algorithm to factorize numbers (in cryptography if you can easily factorize a large number into 2 non trivial factors, you get access to everyone's secrets). Peter Schor is the genius of universal computing and got many very well deserved awards for his numerous contributions to the field. That said, I believe that his remarkable algorithm (yes it does require deep understanding of advanced algebraic constructs and number theory) so far can only factor numbers up to 21. That algorithm has been invented more than a quarter century ago. I believe that it would be difficult do find another algorithm even remotely as useful as Schor's algorithm. This does put some perspective on the current state of universal gate quantum computing. Contrasting this to the limited but real and practical success of quantum annealing does highlight the dangers of mixing the two indiscriminately.

  • The best (though very flawed) explenation I have heard of a quantum computer for a lay person is to think of a quantum program as setting up a math problem in physics, and then letting it react and collapse into a stable state, and that stable state is your answer. More like a chemical reaction resulting into a solution because it has to react to a solution rather than computing to a solution. Again, super flawed, but not a terrible functional analogy. But the idea is that it allows some very complicated math to solve extremely quickly, while they are actually super inefficient on other types of compute. The future is going to have a wide array of compute. CPUs for extremely linier math with lots of singular dependancies. GPUs for highly parallel generalized compute tasks. Quantum computers for dealing with math that has multiple answers and stupid amounts of variables. And analog processors are being designed for AI acceleration. Between these 4 types of compute we are going to have a new generational leap in compute technology that will change how we do everything over the next 30 years, just like traditional and GPU compute has changed so many things over the last 30 years. Combine it with advanced robotics and AI, and we will have a revolution of highly efficient and simi-inteligent machines that will be able to re-shape our world to however we program them to. Some of it will be terrible... but I think most of it will be exciting and make the world a much better and easier place to live!

  • Awesome video Matt. I had know idea the Quantum computing was already so advanced, and already being utilised on real world problems. It sounds like using Quantum computers to optimise there own design would be a good idea driving insanely faster experiential development of this technology. Excellent news that solving climate change is high on the list of priorities…but what about bitcoin mining 😆

    • Fussion reactors was my first thought too 🤣

  • i can imagine a scenario in which after the first quantum predicted ‘natural disaster’ that people are intrigued and amazed. after this is closely followed by a second and third instance (because climate change), federal mandates that quantum computer supplied forecasts to NOAA and the NWS can justify forced evacuation of affected areas and justification for long-term reassessment of habitable areas [to non-habitable] which void insurance policies, support federal acquisition of affected land via eminent domain and federally supported relocation of affected communities. this could be a wonderful or terrible use of science and the methods used to protect people or diminish their rights. as always, the choice is ours.

  • it is always great to watch your videos and learn sth new in science. thank you

  • Would you make a class session of quantum computing specifically with a quantum computing scientist in next class so we can understand QCP better? Thanks.

  • When computers are quantum, and if consciousness is quantum, then to my mind, the most exciting possibilty is our conscious interface with them.

  • quantum computers might answer faster to a lot of questions but is still up to humans to ask the correct question. because asking a wrong question will always give you a wrong answer no matter how fast the computer is.

  • when you talked about how much less energy it takes to run quantum computers, was that only one specific part? I thought quantum computing also needed super cooling, no?

  • If they're already using this in scientific research labs, we could see this in the commercial market in a few decades. Computers were a thing even in the 50s, though they were the size of a bus. Data storage was low density, drives were megabytes in size but the size of refrigerators or washing machines. Now, 70 years later you're watching this on a machine that's more capable than anyone who was alive back then could even conceive of or imagine in any sense. I'm optimistic about seeing these hit the market and be in reach to normal people before I kick the bucket.

    • I'm goona be watching on a teletype at 2 pages a minute. I'll flick through it in about 2 months

  • i think we are at the precipice of a "quantum leap" (pun intended) in technologic advancement. I liken this to the impact of transistors from the 1950's which allowed computers to be significantly more powerful and completely changed how humanity interacts with the world.

  • I've been following a local quantum computer company called IQM. Just waiting to see what they come up with.

  • With wireless quantum entangled modems, we can build a network joining all quantum computers, rather than trying to enlarge individual quantum processing units.

  • I like how every sentence is packed full of content. He's my favorite. I graduated as a math major.

  • So what I find neat about these. Once they become more wide spread, we have become complacent when it comes to encryption standards, because we haven't really put effort into building a machine that can crack those. (I know, I'm sure there is, but I'm speaking on the idea of overall encryption.) 128 bit encryption is more than enough for a standard computer, it wouldn't be worth it to crack. Now with qubits, the processing power is just absolutley disgusting, and I feel like we're gonna lead into an age of either super encryption, or no encryption at all.

  • So what I find neat about these. Once they become more wide spread, we have become complacent when it comes to encryption standards, because we haven't really put effort into building a machine that can crack those. (I know, I'm sure there is, but I'm speaking on the idea of overall encryption.) 128 bit encryption is more than enough for a standard computer, it wouldn't be worth it to crack. Now with qubits, the processing power is just absolutley disgusting, and I feel like we're gonna lead into an age of either super encryption, or no encryption at all.

  • Matt .. thanks i now understand enough about Qbits to confuse my other engineer buddies. Great explanation.

  • 3:10 - No, this is incorrect. You cannot change the state on one and have the other immediately change state as this would break causality. Instead once you observe one of the entangle particles, the state of the other is then also known. So no, quantum entanglement does NOT allow FTL communication. You can visualize entanglement like this: I take a pair of gloves and put one in the trunk of a car travelling north and one in the trunk of a car travelling south. The driver of one car gets out after driving for an hour and finds he has a left glove. He then instantly knows the other driver has the right but no information was transferred in the process.

    • I believe that "information transfer" does not occur in the traditional way. If we use your own analogy, the driver with the right glove "informed" the other driver of this fact. This would be the "transfer" and not the conventional transfer that we are used to.

    • I laughed hard man bcoz of the reply 🤣

    • Abe Lincoln is not only a vampire hunter but also a theoretical physicist

  • It's a lot to wrap your head around, at least for me. I would imagine quantum computing can and will be used to solve many other problems besides climate change,. What's around the corner?

  • I can feel in my bones! We are on the brink of a new revolutionary era. With its impact on our lives like the past eras had on the then people, such as the industrial revolution, the golden era, or even when the internet was invented. I hope I get to witness such as era and tell my kids about how I was there when it happened, just like how my parents told me about the black and white TVs and my gramma talking about ww2.

  • what impact will this have on the development of AI?

  • Yes It’s going to offer amazing solutions Thanks for the good work

  • Just realize that all of this has been and currently depends almost entirely on government funding. Corporations privatize the innovations, but the real innovations and talent start with government funded research in universities. If we want to accelerate these innovations we need to invest more in research and university labs as a country and across the world.

  • Quantum Computers right now remond me of normal computers in the 80's. The possibilities are endless

  • If all the companies currently working on this could pool their resources and knowledge we could get there so much faster. Hopefully it becomes a reality as there are a lot of other problems this could be applied too as well as climate change.

  • I love these vids..... They give a glimmer of hope for the future. Thanks Matt

  • Computer itself consumes much less energy. But keeping it cooled to near absolute Zero consumes hell lot of energy.

  • Hey Matt! Do you think water and food will become a problem after we solve energy? On the scale of the next 50 years.

  • Do the energy reduction stats shown in this video include the cooling solutions? When I looked into quantum computing previously, I found out that they required a LOT of cooling. Like 90% of the rack space was used for the cooling solution, because the computers required -200 degrees C to operate. Has there been a breakthrough in this area, or is this still the same issue?

    • of course not. its misinformation as usual.

    • @Rob Fraser keep in mind they aren't faster at everything, only some tasks.

    • Running a 30kW quantum computer for an hour or running a 1mW supercomputer for several weeks? The energy saving is astronomical.

    • Cooling is a capital investment provided you have good insulation.

  • Well I think pretty much most of this is accurate except for the 0.002% power usage part. Quantum computing is good for very specific things and I can believe it saves power in that (if not just for the shorter duration of the calculations), but they can't replace 'old computing' entirely as you've stated yourself. Also, we aren't "there yet". In the sense that, even if we replaced all of the computing we could with quantum tomorrow, we'd just ramp up the amount of calculations we need (usage) by so much, we'd hit the same levels all over again. Because we'd have whole new technologies to grow and improve... Much like how our computers now are still not enough after 50 years of development and let's be honest, people in the 80s would FREAK from our smartphones --- It's still not good enough. Quantum computing won't be, either. We'll use them 100% all the time and that will balance out the power usage.

  • When you say that "You can count all of the quantum computers on one hand", you must have a lot of fingers. IBM has over 20 functional quantum computers based on System One alone.

  • I wonder at what point the storage of data received from Quantum Computing becomes in and of itself a limiting factor on overall processing

    • @altrag you do well with your explanation. I would go along the lines that for classical computers to do what quantum computers are good at, the storage requirements DURING calculation far exceed input and output together. If you are willing to throw away the intermediate steps (as every solution centric user is) then no difference. An example: Weather forecasting... A set of boundary (input) conditions are given to "the algorithm". Then the forecast program sets up many (usually 50) data sets with random perturbations to the input data and produces 50 forecasts, called an ensemble. A statistical and manual analysis is used to pick the "right" one. During each of those forecast calculations the data may be interpolated in order to perform calculations on a finer grid than the inputs. Namely vortex calculations. There is no need to do fine work if there is a, steady breeze. If a vortex might be generated then a finer grid is essential. The area where these extra calculations are performed track the vortex. But once the data hits the news channel all the calculations are dumped.

    • @Matt Hays Its not really data intensive. The superposition (where the "data" is stored) is not something that can ever be stored - not as an input, and not as an output. The superposition only exists (and can only exist) while the quantum calculations are being performs. To run a quantum computer with 1000 qubits you: a) Initialize the system with 1000 bits (that's classical bits) of data. There is no superposition yet. b) Do a bunch of horrifically complicated math to create and manipulate the superposition in a way that's (hopefully) useful to you. c) Read out the results, which as noted above collapses the superposition so you're once again reading out 1000 classical bits - _not_ qubits. Its that step (b) that makes quantum computers more useful than classical computers. Steps (a) and (c) are no different from any other computer system (in theory.. the hardware of course will be different since both steps need to interact with the qubits, but the states involved are classical everywhere we get to see them). The main reason quantum computers are "hard" is that jumping from (b) to (c) is _extremely_ easy to do. So easy that stray particles or even photons of light that just happening to pass by can cause the superposition to collapse before we want it to and screw up the results. The fewer the strays and the lower their energy, the less likely that is to happen, which is why quantum computers are almost universally operated at cryogenic temperatures. (Note: I'm using terminology rather loosely in order to (try to) generate some level of intuition. Hopefully I was at least somewhat successful at providing an extremely-high-level description of how these machines operate, but definitely don't take any of that as any sort of deep understanding. The rabbit hole of quantum mechanics goes very deep, and quantum computing inherits a lot of that mess. Far deeper than I could hope to describe or even fully understand myself!)

    • @robert w it's a good question. For certain algorithms the access to storage is already the limiting factor. For example one of the most well known quantum algorithms is Grover's algorithm for unstructured search. It can find a marked element in a database of N elements in root(N) tries while a classical algorithm needs N tries. However you first would have to build a quantum database which in itself needs N operations. So in this setting you won't have a quantum advantage as data loading is inefficient.

    • @Matt Hays I think you get the size of the pipe issue I see... at some level even loading the question into the machine and reading out the answer from the machine takes up an amount of time that slows down the entire process

    • I may be entirely missing the point of this question, but if the problem to solve is a data intensive one, you still have to get the data into it. The term "holographic storage" popped into my head, but I don't know why, because I'm not even sure what that would look like in a practical sense. I just said way more than I know, so I probably should have remained quiet. It might be my point is nothing, other than I wanted to say "holographic storage."

  • sounds like Quantum Computing may be the missing piece to make fussion reactors... If I remember one of you videos correctly one of the fussion reactor designs was trying to modulate the energy field in order to maintan the fussion reaction; so a quantum computer would allow a predicitve program to modulate the reactor on the fly. Tech is still 30 years away though ;)

  • I had an argument with an old friend when I said that this would “sort it all out”. They saw wind power as the best thing since sliced bread but when I said that a new power will probably take over they looked quite put out and I think they expected me to know all about it. But I said wasn’t a physicist..I do think tho that the WEF etc will keep a tight hold on such amazing power. I also argued that business will not let something freely exist. Sadly there’s a certain bit of the population who craves money and profits so who will benefit REALLY..?

  • The only issue i can see with some of the global calculations is getting accurate numbers on emissions from other countries, like china and India. Even today's calculations on standard CPU's arent all that accurate either. The computer can only do what it knows, unless we had a satellite network that gathered constant data of earth and directly inputting it into the QuantumComputer its hard to know.

  • Would quantum computers be able to track asteroids for more than a couple decades like hundreds of years into the future

  • I believe if it's a collective effort with more than one Quantum Computer (QC) we should be able to find a resolution to climate change. It may take multiple QC working on different aspects of the crisis to create the environmental elements of that change, along with the technology and robotic power to implement which we have. As energy is dispensed it will become an ebb and flow with the correct balance of QC and Robotics working machine & machine and human hand in hand to lower overall earth temperatures. Anything is possible if you have the correct tools. 🇺🇲🙏

  • There are already photonic (light) chips, that have greater power efficiency than conventional chips. They can run multiple calculations in parallel by dividing it in light spectrums aka bandwidth aka colors. Those will become the norm in servercenters sooner than Quantum chips will. Photonic chips are easily 12 times faster per watt. Less heat, so less cooling needed. But also have their limitations. Like with the sort of calculations they are good at. Mostly stateless calculations. (So no memory) Plenty good for AI though. And you need interoperable circuits to switch from light to electric and back. Which makes it harder to put in consumer products. But for dedicated servers racks, it is not so much an issue. Especially if one photonic rack can replace 4 to 12 conventional racks. Depending on how much you can push the light parallelization.

    • There also is research into photonic quantum computers! Although the implementation for that is still some years into the future, but the advantages are essentially the same plus having higher coherence times.

  • I was kind of expecting graphene to be involved with this technology.

  • Great !! Very informative video. Thank you Matt

  • Hey matt could you please explain the concept of DNA storage and principles of photonic AI chips if u can see this give a hi fi your explanations are cool

  • The things I have seen and heard leads me to conclude that we can solve climate change today. We do not posses the will to actually choose. First, hydrothermal carbonization can take methane-generating materials and turn them into solid carbon. Yes, I know that is a simplification. Second, regenerative agriculture can sequester carbon by growing more gras and enhancing the subsoil biome. Both of these technologies harness the power of biology, of life itself, to solve the problem. There are technological solutions that are very important. Somehow, we have to agree on a course, then commit to it. All those things said, I confess that what I se does not leave me hopeful. Here’s hoping for consensus sooner rather than later. It will be much easier now than with the catastrophe on us.

  • The intellectual stimulus of your videos is really nice ! Quantum computing seems destined to solve global governance for optimal peace and happiness and human intellectual cultivation. Thus it should be able to design a universal constitution or several interactive constitutions so that "the economically "Flat" World can be achieved. See "The World is Flat" (C) 2006 Friedman. It's already too late but I would have loved for my sons to marry outside their Mestizo race and perhaps mate up with Chinese or African or Japanese girls; and for it to have been arranged by a quantum computer..

  • Can a quantum computer solve the halting problem? Can it figure out how to build a better functioning version of itself?